Advice for All Destinations
for All Destinations
risks to health whilst travelling will vary between individuals and
many issues need to be taken into account, e.g. activities abroad,
length of stay and general health of the traveller. It is recommended
that you consult with your General Medical Practitioner who will
assess your particular health risks before recommending vaccines and
/or antimalarial tablets. This is also a good opportunity to discuss
important travel health issues including safe food
Many of the problems experienced by travellers cannot be prevented by
vaccinations and other preventive measures need to be taken. Ensure
you are fully insured for medical emergencies including repatriation.
following advice is specific to travel in South Africa.
Confirm primary courses and
boosters are up to date including
vaccines given to special groups because of risk exposure or
complications (e.g. hepatitis B for health care workers, influenza
and pneumococcal vaccines for the elderly).
or boosters usually advised:
diphtheria; tetanus; hepatitis A.
tuberculosis; hepatitis B; rabies; cholera; typhoid.
yellow fever vaccination certificate is
required from travellers over 1 year of age coming from areas with
of yellow fever transmission.
on the diseases mentioned above
is contracted through dirty cuts and scratches. This is a
serious infection of the nervous system.
A are spread
through contaminated food and water. Typhoid causes septicaemia and
hepatitis A causes liver inflammation and jaundice. In risk areas
you should be immunised if good hygiene is impossible.
is spread through contaminated water and food. More common during
floods and rainy seasons. Those unable to take effective
precautions, for example, during wars and when working in refugee
camps or slums may consider vaccination.
is most commonly transmitted via droplet infection. BCG vaccination
is recommended for travellers under 16 years of age who will be
living or working with local people for a prolonged period of time
(three months or more). Following individual risk assessment,
vaccination may also be considered for travellers under the age of
35 years who may be at high risk through their occupation abroad eg
is also spread by droplet infection through close personal contact.
Vaccination is advised if close contact with locals in risk areas is
B is spread
through infected blood, contaminated needles and sexual intercourse,
It affects the liver, causes jaundice and occasionally liver
failure. Vaccination is recommended for those at occupational risk
(e.g. health care workers), for long stays or frequent travel to
medium and high risk areas, for those more likely to be exposed such
as children (from cuts and scratches) and those who may need
is spread through bites or licks on broken skin from an infected
animal. It is always fatal. Vaccination is advised for those going
to risk areas that will be remote from a reliable source of vaccine.
Even when pre-exposure vaccines have been received urgent medical
advice should be sought after any animal bite.
is a serious and sometimes fatal disease transmitted by mosquitoes.
You cannot be vaccinated against malaria.
The risk is high in the low altitude
areas of Mpumalanga and Limpopo Provinces which border Zimbabwe and
Mozambique. Includes Kruger National Park. Risk also in
north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal as far south as Jozini. There is low to
no risk in all other parts of the country including the tourist
centre of Sun City and the Greater St Lucia Wetland Park.
are essential. Avoid mosquito bites by covering up with clothing
such as long sleeves and long trousers especially after sunset,
using insect repellents on exposed skin and, when necessary,
sleeping under a mosquito net.
with your doctor or nurse about suitable antimalarial tablets.
OR doxycycline OR mefloquine is usually recommended for those
visiting risk areas.
you have been travelling in a malarious area and develop a fever
seek medical attention promptly. Remember malaria can develop even
up to one year after exposure.
travelling to high risk malarious areas, remote from medical
facilities, carrying emergency malaria standby
treatment may be considered.
advice is issued by National Health Service Direct, UK.
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